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MUHAMMAD BN YA\'AKUB ALKULAINI


Hujjatul Islam Ali Dawani

Ana kirga Sikatul Islam Muhammad dan Ya’akub dan Ishak al’kulaini arrazi, da aka fi sani da Sheikh Kulaini daga mafi shaharar malaman fikihu da hadisi na shi’a a rabin farko na karnin hud na hijira.
Asalainsa ba’raniye ne daga garin Kulain wanda yake da nisan kilomita 38 daga garin Rayyi a yankin yamma a kan hanyar Kum zuwa Tehran kusa da Hasan Abad, a yanzu. Don haka ne ma aka san shi da arrazi wato; wanda yake dan Rayyu.
Rayyu a wannan zamani ta kasance mafi girman gari a a gabashin duniya bayan Bagadaza kamar yadda ya zo a littafin nan na Yakutul Hamawi masanin Geography sananne.
Muhimmin lamari a nan shi ne cewa; Rayyu ta kasance gari ne daga cibiyoyin Shi'a na farko tun wancan zamani duk da kuwa akwai sunnan hanifawa da shafi'awa a cikin da suke su suka fi yawa daga mutanen Rayyu, kuma kabarin babansa yana nan a garin Kulain wanda yake wurin ziyarar mutane ne a wancan lokacin. Da ma malamai da yawa kamar Muhammad bn Usam duk daga wannan alkarya ta Kulain suke.

Matsayin Kulain a Duniyar Musulmi

An haife shi a lokacin Imam Hasan askari (a.s) kuma ya yi zamani da wakilan Imam Mahadi (a.s) guda hudu da suka kasance tsakatsaki tsakanin Shi'a da imaminsu Imam Mahadi (a.s) a tsawon shekarun karamar boyuwar Imam (a.s).

Duk da matsayi babba da wadannan wakilai suke da shi na kasancewarsu daga masu ruwaya gun Shi'a sai dai Kulaini ya fi su shahara da daukaka da yake da kima duka tsakanin Sunna da Shi'a da ya bayar da himma wurin ganin ya yada mazhabar gaskiya ta Ahlul Baiti (a.s). kuma dukkan mutane suna yi masa sheda da gaskiyar magana da aiki da cikakkiyar masaniya da hadisai da ruwayoyi, har sai da duka Sunna da Shi'a suka rika koma masa ga fatawa don haka ne ya kasance amintacce tsakanin duka jama'ar biyu, kuma shi ne farkon malamin musulunci da aka san shi da wannan suna na Sikatul Isam (Amintaccen musulunci), kuma tabbas ya cancanci wannan sunan.
Ya kasance ba shi da kama a amana da adalci da takawa da falala da kiyaye hadisai wanda yake daga cikin siffofin da ake nema ga malamin hadisi, kuma ya fice na musamman tsakanin malaman hadisai a tsakanin wadanda suka ruwaito daga gareshi, wannan yana nuna irin taimakon Allah da yake tare da shi kuwa.
Ya samu yabo mai yawa daga malaman Shi'a masu yawa da suka siffanta shi da daraja da takawa, da kiyayewa, da maruwaici daga imamai, da aminci, da rikon amanar hadisi, da kiyayewa ga hadisi. Daga malamai masu yawa da suka hada da: shehud Da'ifa Attusi, da anNajashi, da Ibn Shahri Ashub mazandarani, da allama Hilli, da Ibn Dawud, da Ibn Dawus, da Sheikh Baha'I, da malamai da yawa da ba mu kawo su ba a nan.
Kamar yadda aka karbo irin wannan yabo gareshi daga malaman Sunna kamar ibn Asir aljazari a littafinsa Jami'ul Usul, da ya ce; Kulaini yana daga masu jaddada shari’a a cikin karshen karni na uku, sannan sai ya kawo hadisin jaddada addini a kowace shekara dari. Da akwai malamai masu yawa da suka ya bi Kulain da suka hada da malaman Mazhab Ahlul Bait (a.s) da kuma sauran mazhabobi na Ahlussunna, da suka hada da: Ibn Hajar Askalani, Fairuz abadi, da sauransu.
Amma ta bangaren malamai kuwa Sikatul Islam Kulaini yana daga cikin manyan malamai masu girma da maruwaita da fakihai masu yawa daga garin Rayyu, da Kum, da Bagadaza, da sauran garuruwan musulunci na kusa da na nesa, wannan kuwa yana faruwa ne a cikin rabin karshen na karni uku na hijira. Kulaini ya amfana daga malamai masu yawa da har sai da aka ambaci malamai masu yawa kusan arba’in da ya kirga su cikin malamansa. Malamansa kuwa har da ma’abota sauran mazhabobi da zamu iya kawo wasu daga cikin malamansa kamar haka:
Ahmad bn Muhammad bn Isa Alkummi, da Ahmad bn Muhammad dan Sa’id alhamdani, Ahmad bn Muhammad alhamdani, Ahmad bn Muhammad bn Asim alkufi, Husain bn alhasan alhusaini al’aswad, Dawud bn Kura.
Amma game da dalibansa kuwa ana ganin Kulaini daya daga cikin manyan malamai da suka yi ruwayar hadisai a rabin farko n akarni hudu na hijira a Iran da Irak da ya fitar da dalibai masu yawa wadanda suka yi karatu a hannunsa da suka hada da wasu daga ciki kamar haka:
Ahmad bn Ibrahim assumairi, ahmad alkatib alkufi, Abu Galib Ahmad bn Muhammad arrazi, Ja’afar bn Muhammad bn kulawaih alkummi, da sauransu masu yawan gaske.
Kulaini ya wallafa littattafai masu yawa kan ilimomi masu yawa da suka hada da Rijal, da Arrad alal Karamida, da Wasa’ilul ayimma, da Ta’abirur ru’uya, da wakoki masu yawan gasket, sai dai mafi shaharar littafinsa ya hada da: Littafin Kafi shahararre kuma daga cikin manyan littattafai masu girma guda hudu na shi’a, malamai masu yawa ne suka yi magana game da wannan littafin da magana kansa zai iya daukar lokuta masu yawa.
Littafin Kafi na kulaini ya samu sharhohi masu yawa daga malamai daban-daban masu dama, wanda ambaton wannan zai kasance al’amari mai tsawo kwarai da gaske.
Wannan malamai mai daraja da girma da daukaka wato Sikatul Islam Kulain wanda ya sha fama wurin hada hadisai da yada ilimomi masu kima da yada koyarwar Ahlul Bait (a.s) ya rasu a shekara ta 328 ko 329 hijira, kuma rasuwarsa ta yi daidai da lokacin faruwar babbar boyuwar Imam Mahadi (a.s), amma tarihin haihuwarsa ba sananne ba ne.



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