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AYATUL-LAHI SAYYID MURTADHA ASKARI (R)



An haifi Sayyid Murtadha Askari a garin samarra a takwas ga watan jimada sani, shekarar 1323 H.
Ya yi karatun a hauzar garin a cikin mukaddimat, abokin karatunsa a wannan lokacin shi ne mai littafin “Ma’alimul Usul” sheikh Abbas Ali Islami, bayan shekara ta 1349 H. sai ya yi hijira zuwa garin Kum a Iran, a muharram 1350 H. kuma ya zauna a nan har zuwa shekara 1353.
Ya karanta fikihu da Usulu tare da abokinsa Ayatul-Lahi sheikh Murtadha Ha’iri da sayyid Ahmad sajjadi gun manyan malaman hauza da suka hada da:
Sayyid Shihabuddin mar’ashi najafi, da sheikh Muhammad Husain Shar’atmadari, kuma ya yi karatun Akida gun Imam Khomain sannan ya karanta Tafsiri gun sheikh Mirza Khalil Kamra’I, ya karanta tarbiyyar halaye gun sheikh Mahadi Shahid shugaban makarantar Ridhawiyya, inda ya zauna a nan shekaru biyu kuma wannan malamin shi ne mai kula da al’amuran Allama Askari, sannan bayan nan ne sai ya tafi makaratar Faidhiyya.

Mutumin Ilimi Da Aiki

Allama askari ya fuskanci karatun tarihi tun yana cikin kuruciya, kuma ya yi karatu mai yawa a fagagen wannan ilimi domin ya fice ga abokan karantunsa a wannan fagage masu muhimmanci fiye da yadda aka saba.

Bayan ya gama karantunsa kana bin da daliban ayatullahi shirazi suka rubuta kan mas’alar nan ta Tanbako (garin taba) da kuma abin da malaman turai suka rubuta ne sai ya fara karatun yadda ‘yan mulkin mallaka suka shiga kasshen musulmu suka yi barna, kuma ya yi kokarin ganin kawo iyaka da karshe ga tasiri da suka yi a kwakwalen musulmi.

Kamar yadda ya gano hadarin abin da suke yi na yakin tunani da kwakwalwa a kan musulmi da kuma abin da yake yi na tasiri musamman na ganin an bakanta surar musulunci a cikin jama’a mai zuwa nan gaba.

Ya kasance daga cikin masu tunani na farko da suka gano sirrin kutungwila da ake yi wa tsarin karatun Iraki ta hannun masu bayar da shawara ‘yan waje da irin makircin da suke son kawowa ta hanyar koyarwa, kamar yadda ya bayyana bambancin tsarin da ake yi a kasashe kamar Japan da Faransa, da kuma wanda ake yi a kasashen musulmi da mu na kasashen musulmi dalibi yana fita daga karatu ne sai ya kasance ma’aikaci a kan kujera da ba abin da zai iya yi sai dai ya karbi umarnin abin da aka gaya masa kawai, kamar yadda ya nemi karya dasisar raba Hauza da Jami’a da neman samara da wani tsari mai karfi da zai daidaita wadannan lamurran guda biyu.

Amma abin takaici wannan motsin da ya fara shi a garin Samarra ya fuskanci takurawa daga wasu mutane masu sandararren tunani kamar dai yadda salihai suka fuskantar wahalhalu, don haka ne ma sai ya yi rubutu a kan hakan domin wayar da kan al’umma da sauran ma’abota tunani kuma ya kawo matsalolin da ake fama da su da yadda za a warware su.

Don haka sai ya motsa zuwa bagadaza domin ya samu dammar aiwatar da abin da zai yada wayewar musulunci da maganin wasu cututtukan da suke damun al’ummar musulmi. Don haka sai ya hadu da wasu malamai kamar Ustaz Ahmad Amin ya ba shi littafin da ya rubuta kuma aka samu fahimtar juna tsakaninsu, sai ya fara wannan aikin shi kuma allama askari yana dada wayar da shi kan aikin.

Sai dai shi Ahmad Amin ya fuskanci wasu matsalolin da suka tilasta shi daga karshe neman taimakon sojoji a nan Kazimiyya sai ya daidaita lamarin makarantarsa a nan Muntadan Nashri kuma ya yi wasu tarurruka domin samun wayarwar addinin musulunci. Bayan cin nasarar matakin farko sai allama askari ya fara matakinsa na biyu, ya karbi dammar koyar da ilimomi da kwarewa a bangarori daban-daban na ilimin musulunci.
Amma fa ya fuskanci matsaloli matuka da nuna rashin yarda da masu suka, sai dai wannan lokaci shi ne lokacin rayuwar allama askari mai albarka kan abin da ta fitar, mai yalwatar sakamako mai kyau.

Wannan lamari ya sanya shi dawowa Samarra da koyar da karanta Fikihu kusan shekaru biyu hada da wallafe-wallafe da yake yi har sai da ya samu kansa yana da karfi a kan rubutu game da tarihin musulunci da tunaninsa kamar yadda ya kasa tarihin musulunci zuwa marhaloli, sannan kuma ya yi bincike kan lamurra masu zurfi kamar sha’anin ruwayar Saifu, game da “Abdullahi dan Saba’” da kuma batun “Sahabbai 150 na Kage”. Kuma sai wannan lamarin ya girgiza mutane kan abubuwan da suka dade karnoni masu yawa suna gadonsa amma hakikarsa ta boyu garesu. Sai ga bincike ya gano abubuwa masu yawa da Dabari da waninsa suka yi da’awarsu da babu komai na gaskiya a cikinsu. An fara buga wannan littafin ne a shekara ta 1375 Hijira.
Kuma allama bai bar sha’anin nan na ilimi ba da yada shi don haka sai ya koma assasa makarantu da hauzozin ilimi yana mai juye wahalhalu a kan wannan tafarkin, sai ya koma Kum a daidai lokacin da Burujardi ya isa, sai Burujardi ya yi masa bayanin assasa Hauza kuma shi ya jagorance ta, amma sha’anin, sai dai matsalolin siyasa da suka babaye Iran a wannan lokacin na Dr Musaddik da Ayatul-Lahi Kashani, da Hauzar Kum sun sanya shi barin Iran, amma kuma bayan ya koma Samarra sai suka ki karbarsa, al’amarin da ya sanya shi assasa makarantar Imam Kazim (a.s) da ta ci gaba har zuwa juyin july 14, 1958.

Cibiyoyin Musulunci

A sakamakon yaduwar kungiyoyin kiyayya da addini kamar Ba’(a.s) da kuma farfagandar da ta cika kasar Iraki ta ‘yan Mishan, sai sayyid Askari ya hadu da sauran abokansa sauran malamai domin kutsawa al’amuran siyasa karkashin kulawar marigayi Ayatul-Lahi Uzma Muhsin Hakim.

A cikin wannan motsin ne ya tafi albaya’ a matsayin wakilin mar’ja’in, sannan kuma sai Kurada ta gabas, domin ta kasance wurin da zasu fara motsinsu daga nan.
Motisnsu ya fara daga cikin husainiyyoyi ne kuma ya cigaba har shikaru masu tsawo.

Ya kasance yana da tunanin assasa kungiyoyi wadanda ta cikinsu za a shiga ayyukan alheri da ci gaban al’umma sai ya assasa kungiyar “Sandukul Khairil al’islami” wacce sayyid Hibatuddin ya kafa, sannan sai ta kasance hannun sayydi Murtadha Askari wanda ya riga ya kafa “Jam’iyyatut tarbiyyatul Islamiyya” kafin hakan.

Sai ya bude wani karamin asibiti a Kurrada Sharkiyya a kazimiyya ga daliban addini da masu kawo ziyara ga harami da wuraren ziyara masu tsarki, da sauran miskinai.
Kuma ya kafa wuraren koyar da ilimin misilunci da dalibai da yawa suka yi karatu a wuraren, wadanda suka hada da:
Makaratar Imam Jawad (a.s)
Makarantun Bagadaza al’jadida
Makarantar Imam Kazim (a.s)
Raudhatul adfal, don kananan yara
Makaranta azzahara, don ‘yan mata
Makarantar Imam Sadik (a.s) a Basara
Sakandaren Imam Bakir (a.s) a Hilla
Sakandaren Imam Hasan (a.s) a Diwaniyya
Cibiyar koyar da ‘yan mata a Nu’umaniyya
Sannan sai kuma kafa Kolejin Usuluddin a Bagadaza a shekarar hijira 1384, domin a samu kammala jami’a ta musulunci.

Bayan Kungiyar Ba’as ta samu mulki sai ta kama shi wannan ne ma ya sanya shi guduwa Labanon a 1389 Hijira. Amma yayin da suka so su sace shi a Labanon sai ya koma Iran a wannan shekarar.

Duk da tsufan da allama Askarai ya yi amma har yanzu yana da rubuce-rubuce da yake yi kuma da yawa suna nan har yanzu ba a buga su ba.
Kamar yadda ya ci gaba da wadannan rubuce-rubuce a Iran, kuma ya assasa “majma’al Alami Islami” a shekarar 1398, kuma ya rubuta littattafan Hauza masu yawa da an buga wasu.
Daga cikin misalin littattafansa akwai:
Buhusun Kur’aniyya
Ma’alimul madrasatain
Ma’alimul islam
Da sauran gomominsu da ba mu ambata ba.



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